Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

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the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) website

Explore the EEOC website to learn more about the organization.

Click the About the EEOC link and select Newsroom. Select a press release about an employee lawsuit published within the last six months.

Search the Internet to find at least one news item about this lawsuit, preferably from a news source in the state in which the incident occurred.

Write an 800- to 1,000-word paper that includes the following:

A description of the compliance issue that led to the lawsuit and its ramifications for the organization
A brief summary of the functions of the EEOC in one paragraph
The EEOC’s role in this lawsuit
Whether or not this lawsuit promotes social change; justify your reasoning
A comparison of the EEOC press release to the news item. What accounts for the differences?
Strategies you would implement, if you were a senior manager of this company, to ensure future compliance and inclusion in the multicultural workplace
Please note that Title and Reference Pages do not count towards minimum word count requirement.

Format your paper according to appropriate course-level APA guidelines.

Submit your assignment to the Assignment Files tab.


Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Student’s Details
Institutional Affiliations

• EEOC is an abbreviation for United States’ Employment Opportunity Commission which helps in the enhancement of credibility and equality in employment. The s=commission ensures that there is no any kind of discrimination during the recruitment process in both the public and private sectors. It ensures that are the employees regardless of their ethnicity and political affiliations receive equal employment opportunities. This helps to fend off greed, racism, sexual harassment and corruption during the employment process (Selmi, 2016).
EEOC case or charges handling process are done at different levels. This implies that there are different laws that the commission can not implement. For instance, Title III of the ADA, , Workers Compensation Law, Social Security Act and Civil Service Reform Act (1978) are some of the laws EEOC can not enforce on its own without the help from the federal government.
Functions of the EEOC-
• To ensue that the federal laws on employment and anti-discriminatory recruitment is adopted in all sectors. This ensures that there is no discrimination on gender, origin, religion, race, genetic information, color or political affiliation when offering employment.
• It is responsible for investigations on a reported instance of such discrimination during employment of citizens under American jurisdiction.
• Settling disputes that culminate from discriminatory employment.
• Educating citizens about their civic employment rights (Selmi, 2016).
Cases solved by the EEOC
1. Emma Armon was discriminated by an apparel retailer for he physical impairment and a shoulder injury she had, she was denied employment because of her condition something that made EEOC to file a lawsuit in which saw Emma granted a $38000 as a monetary compensation for the discrimination. EEOC after filing the lawsuit made it known to the media and court the pain Emma went through while seeking employment with the retailers. By this doing, EEOC helped Emma to get equal employment opportunity as well as monetary compensation from the company.
2. DOTS another apparel retailing company has faced the wrath of EEOC as it was forced to pay $250000 for discriminating white people when employing. DOTs used to hire only black employees on entry level positions were the whites also can also fit well. This was a violation the famous Title VII of the civil rights. Played a very crucial and significant role in ensuring that DOTS was competent and non-discriminatory on its employment policies. By this doing, EEOC has well protected the Title VII of Civil rights by ensuring that rogue companies such as DOTS does not cultivate such a discriminatory agenda again.
3. IHOP Restaurant Company And Owner Held In Contempt For Refusing To Post Court Ordered Notice Of Sexual Harassment Verdict
In this case, the company denied an employment opportunity to the person on the ground that the person had been sexually harassed. EEOC intervened on the matter where the case eventually was settled in the court. The restaurant owner later accepted to employ anyone to work provided they are eligible for the job without any form of discrimination.
EEOC after interference ensured that the =case was well solved by showing that every human being is equal regardless of their disabilities or any of their short comings. EEOC helped to show the world that even the sexually harassed people are still crucial in the society and they need not be stigmatized. This is one of the few issues that EEOC addressed in the United States employment policy.
Strategies I would implement if I was a senior company manager.
1. I would ensure that all multicultural companies’ employees know the work of EEOC to ensure they will now when they will be in need of it.
2. I would produce manuscript, pamphlets and brochures on hoe EEOC functions and some of the privileges one would get from EEOC if they happen to be discriminated in their work place. It would also stipulate how to file a lawsuit with the help of EEOC.
3. I will ensure that if a law suit is filed, the affected parties receive te justice that they deserve through pushing the case in court with the stand of the Title VII of the Civil rights. This will ensure that all he companies adopt a policy devoid of discrimination.
4. Unsure that the information reaches each and every employee to ensure that all are reached and no one is left out of the line.
Lawsuit in most cases has helped in making people aware of the laws and regulations that exist and ensure co-morbidity. If a company tries to create monkey business, the lawsuits in history will make them think twice and they will shun away the discriminatory practices.
Women for a long time have received vast discrimination in the work place. EEOC has filed several lawsuits in regard to gender discrimination a step that as seemed to work well. For instance, Maxwell House Coffee Division in October 27 had a lawsuit filed against them for the treatment they accorded to Flancena Smith on of its employees. According to EEOC Francena was harshly punished than her male counterparts. This was seen and proved to be gender discrimination by the EEOC.

Selmi, M. (2016). The Value of the EEOC: Reexamining the Agency’s Role in Employment Discrimination Law. Ohio St. LJ, 57, 1.
US equal employment opportunity Commission, Retrieved on April 24, 2017, http://www.eeoc.gov/

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choice of storage devices for a server

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The choice of storage devices for a server is crucial because it affects speed and reliability for the many users who share the computer. Search several online computer vendors and identify the most popular disk drives for servers. What characteristics do they share? How do they differ? Based on this information, document your recommendations in a 2- to 3-page memo to your manager. List the three or four most important factors you would use when evaluating hard drives for a server. Explain your reasoning.


Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation

To: – Sales Manager
From: –
Date: –
Subject: – Storage Device
Storage device can be referred to as a computer device that is used for storing data. The selection of storage device for a vital because it affects the reliability and speed for the operators of the computers. The storage device comprises of primary and secondary storage device. The paper will examine the different online computer dealers and recognize the most prevalent disk drives for the servers. It will analyze on the characteristic shared by the popular disk and their differences. Further, it will explore on four most vital aspects to be used in evaluation of hard drives for the server.
Online Computer Vendors
There are numerous computer companies that sells their computers online. The advantages achieved by firms include increased sales as the companies can sell their products globally. The online computer vendors include Amazon, TigerDirect, Computer Universe, Rakuten, and Overstock.
There are vital aspects of storage that should be considered before purchase of a storage device. The users should ensure that they purchase storage devices that have high speed. They should also check on the cost and prices to ensure that they sell something that is up to standard or their capacity matches the prices. They should check on the battery life so that information stored on battery does not affect the battery life. The users should also ensure that the storage device they purchase are durable and reliable.
There are several popular or prevalent disk drivers for servers.`The first disk drive is the Seagate that is defined as the world’s fastest near-line drive with 550TB/annually capacity rate limit that is about 10 times greater than that of desktop drives. Secondly, the Toshiba Al13SX Series HDD provides capabilities equal to less power effectual 3.5-inch enterprise drives. Third populardrive is Samsung Portable SSD T3 is an outstanding portable storage device. Lastly, the HGST HDD that contains harmless Helium that creates the globe’s highest capacity.
Differences between SDD and HDD storage
Attribute Hard Disk Drive – HDD Solid State Drive – SDD
Power/Battery Life Uses more battery as it has more power draw of 6-7 watts Uses less power draw of 2-3 watts that draw less power.
Cost It very cheap, around $0.03 per gigabytes It is very expensive, around $ 0.20 per gigabytes
Capacity Usually around 500GB and 2TB maximum for notebook size drives Usually around 1TB and 4TB maximum for notebook size drives
Operating System Boot Time About 30-40 seconds average boot up time About 10-30 seconds average boot up time
Durability Less durable More durable due to their sold state design
Speed Less performance for booting and write/read It has best performance for high write and read and booting.
Affected by Magnetism Magnet can delete information SDD are safe from any effect of magnetism

Both HDD and SDD have FDE or Full Disk Encryption that is supported on some prototypes. In terms of reliability, HDD and SDD technologies have comparable ratings.
Important Factors for Evaluating Hard Drives for a Server
Speed. The storage device are necessary and with modern processors it assist in fastening the access time and transfer rate. Access time will assist the computer to boot and start the programs quickly and the transfer rate helps to write and read files.
Storage Capacity. Refers to the disk space that is provided by storage devices. It can also be referred to as the disk space. The storage capacity helps in installing a program for computer use.
Durability: SSDs are more durable due to their solid state design. They can help to withstand higher extremes of shock and drop or rise of temperature. The more it can withstand the changes in temperature, the more durable it is.

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Describe your family’s race and ethnicity, sex and gender, sexuality, socioeconomic status, disability, age, religion and spirituality

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Write an 800- to 1,000-word paper describing your own cultural heritage and traditions and exploring possible origins of your values, worldviews, and behaviors.

Please note that Title and Reference Pages do not count towards minimum word count requirement.

Address the following in your paper:

Describe your family’s race and ethnicity, sex and gender, sexuality, socioeconomic status, disability, age, religion and spirituality.
Reflect and write on the messages you have received about people from culturally diverse backgrounds
What are you most proud of about your cultural heritage and why?
Compare and contrast your family values, worldviews, and practices with those of some of the families whose ethnicities differ from yours, and provide your reflection. You may use examples form the text for examples of ethnicities different from yours.
How might media coverage affect the public’s perception of your culture? Does it encourage or discourage prejudice, discrimination, and stereotyping?
If you were a manager, what inclusion strategies from this week’s reading might you implement to moderate the media’s effect on your employees and to promote inclusion in the workplace?
Include at least two academic references in your research.

Format your paper according to appropriate course-level APA guidelines.

Submit your assignment to the Assignment Files tab.


Chinese Cultural Heritage
Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation

Chines Cultural Heritage
The Chinese culture is the oldest and can trace its inception from thousands of years ago. The cultural heritage consist of both tangible and intangible issues that comprises of the Chinese culture. The cultural heritage varies between cities, towns and provinces. The cultural heritage of the Chinese include architecture, religion, philosophy, historical sites, cuisine, visual arts, ceramic, songs, martial arts, and literature. This paper studies the culture traditions and heritage to examine probable origin of our behaviors, values, and world views.
First, we hail from the Zhuang people, a minority group that forms one of the 56 ethnic groups that are officially recognized by the Chinese republic(Barthel-Bouchier, 2016). The religion of our family is that they worship Shang Di, who is a supreme god. They have great respect for the holy figures such as Guan Yin, Buddha, and the Jade Emperor. There is change in Chinese sexuality and our family embraces both genders as vital and issues of sex are discussed in the family so as to warn and caution the kids on the dangers of unprotected sex. The family social economic status is above average as they engage in socio-economic activities such as farming.
There are a lot of messages that people from different background receive in their day-to-day conduct of business. Most of the time, the message is negative and they do not rhyme or get along in a smooth way(Safiullin, Gafurov, Shaidullin, & Safiullin, 2014). Usually, this is due to varying or diverse cultural practices and beliefs that conflicts. It can lead to hatred between people and community that can later lead to war among people who do not share similar or common culture.
In contrast to the culture diversity, a community can view the other as mediocre henceforth the societies that are considered to be inferior as they are do not partake on the growth of the republic or they are shelved in the process of decision making process. The tea ceremonies forms part of the essential culture and some people may view this as an outdated and foolish culture that people out to leave and focus with important issues. Such kind of prejudgment and prejudice might cause hate among people who have varying beliefs about the issue.
Culture can offer people a connection to certain customs, religion, and social values. This contributes to a sense of unity and belonging that can be essential in times of calamities and hardship. The Chinese culture has assisted my understanding in the previous generations and their history. For instant, it has helped or aided in understanding the tea culture that is greatly appreciated in our community. It has taught me about the tea monopoly we had as a nation and how it was stolen from us by Britain. This knowledge and understanding has been preserved in Museums across the Chinese nation.
The Chinese family set up and those of an African family may greatly differ. Some of the African communities visit mountains to pray while the Chinese makes their prayers in the temple. As the Chinese attend tea ceremonies to mark a historical cultural heritage, the Africans would attend a bull fighting ceremony. I think the cultural heritage is a way of having fun as we reflect on issues that bonds the community and I feel both the cultures are good as long as they do not interfere with the beliefs and practices of other people.
The media has a role in promotion of the culture of a community. However, there are those media that can chose to condemn it instead. Due to cultural beliefs and heritage that differ, every society tends to have norms and customs that regulate the behavior of the people living in a particular region. The media may seek to promote activities such as education of a girl child in the Chinese community and condemn ceremonies such as those of teas that they think are backward and do not benefit the people. In America, the media has expounded and motivated discrimination, prejudice and stereotyping amongst its people on issues such as religion and ethnicity leading to a divided nation based on race and tribe resulting to disunity.
As a manager, there are numerous things that can be address to encourage the inclusion of staffs in the workstation and to regulate the media effect to the staffs. The social media has been on the rise and it is considered to have a huge influence on staffs. As a manager, it is essential toenlighten the workers about the merits and demerits of social media and how it affect their relationship in the workplace. The employees should use social media for communication and should not abuse it. To ensure there is inclusion, the manager should try to include all the staffs in decision-making process and motivate their staffs to do short courses, attend seminars, and use their free time to better their career so as to ensure that they experience growth.
In conclusion, the paper has explored on the Chinese cultural heritage and traditions and the probable origins of behaviors, worldviews, and values. It has explored on the Chinese family’s religion, sexuality, and ethnicity and have compared it with those of the African community. It has analyzed on the role of the media on culture and how a manager can ensure there is inclusivity in the workstation. The paper is of the opinion that people should learn to appreciate culture diversity so as to live peaceful among communities.

Barthel-Bouchier, D. (2016). Cultural heritage and the challenge of sustainability. Routledge.
MSafiullin, L. N., Gafurov, I. R., Shaidullin, R. N., & Safiullin, N. Z. (2014). Socio-economic development of the region and its historical and cultural heritage. Life Science Journal, 11(6s), 400-404.

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Release Mechanisms

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Release Mechanisms

At some point almost every inmate will be eligible to be released from prison. As the authors point out in Chapter 15 there are a number of release mechanisms that are available. Research these release mechanisms and discuss which ones may be more effective and how they can best serve the inmate and society in general.

Instructions for Writing Your Paper

Write a 2 page APA style paper. Only the body of the paper will count toward the word requirement (title page and references are in addition to the 2 pages)

Students Name
Institutional Affiliation

Release mechanism on prisoners
Prisoners release mechanism involves fleeing of inmates back to the community. This mechanism is discussed in chapter 15 of the Cengage laws. It’s not necessarily that the prisoners must serve the stipulated time before their release, sometimes they are monitored in the prisons under corrective measures and upon transforming theyget pardoned under some conditions. However, prisoners who don’t get the pardoning chance may serve to completion of their term in the correctional institutions. This paper seeks to identify the release mechanisms on prisoners that have a positive impact on the community.
The discretionary release is an essential release method applied in the prisons. This mechanism is achieved through a parole board that determines the offender to be pardoned and attaches some reasons for the exercise (Siebels, et al. 2012). The parole believes that most offenders can be motivated towards positive change and are cooperative to the correctional measures offered in the prisons. The parole board proves beyond doubt that once these prisoners are released to the community, they can be accommodated with ease and turn to be law abiding citizens(Siebels, et al. 2012). The Discretory mechanismguaranteesthe community safety first. The parole board examines each prisoner’s records, analyses and then relates them to the correctional adherence reports before releasing the offenders(Binswanger, et al. 2012). Discretionary mechanism equips offenders with adequate skills and competence that should be practiced upon release. However, the board supervises the paroled offenders seeking to assist them in settling and therefore protects offenders’ welfare (Binswanger, et al. 2012).
The mandatory release mechanism is another parole method that is concerned with the community welfare. The mechanism argues that a prisoner may be released by the law as per the court termless the good moments which may have been earned through the efforts and behavior change in the correctional institution (Siebels, et al. 2012).However, upon the release of a prisoner in a mandatory mechanism, the offender is monitored by the parole board till the end of court term less 180 days of real time achieved in the institution(Binswanger, et al. 2012). If the days are below 180 days, then the supervision takes place until the end of the courtdate. The Proper calculation must be done in this release mechanism to determine the good moments earned by the prisoner in the institution(Binswanger, et al. 2012). Mandatory release mechanism has the community safety in such it pardons the only changed prisoners and monitors them to the end of an offender’s sentence dates(Sugimoto, et al. 2014). This mechanism ensures that the offender settles to the community correctly and has the competence skills gained from the correctional institutions. Failure in complying with the parole rules the offender is detained back (Sugimoto, et al. 2014).
The difference between the two release mechanisms is that Discretionary parole decision is arrived at by a parole board and the sentence frame, conditions are set for the release of the prisoners to the community where the offender is deemed to complete the sentence(Binswanger, et al. 2012). Mandatory parole, on the other hand, replaces the sentence frame through computation of good moments served in the correctional institution and hence calculates the release date of the prisoner(Sugimoto, et al. 2014).
In conclusion, we have other many release mechanisms that are not beneficial to the community as they may lead to high tension in the society upon prisoner’s release. Expiry release mechanism is employed only when the court sentence expires. Once the offender is released may be set for a revenge mission or go back to the activities that had led him or her to the prisons. The paper appreciatesthe correctional measures that result in a positive change on the offenders.
Siebels, J. F., & zu Knyphausen‐Aufseß, D. (2012). A review of theory in family business research: The implications for corporate governance. International Journal of Management Reviews, 14(3), 280-304.
Binswanger, I. A., Nowels, C., Corsi, K. F., Glanz, J., Long, J., Booth, R. E., & Steiner, J. F. (2012). Return to drug use and overdose after release from prison: a qualitative study of risk and protective factors. Addiction science & clinical practice, 7(1), 3.
Sugimoto, D., Myer, G. D., Foss, K. D. B., & Hewett, T. E. (2014). Specific exercise effects of a preventive neuromuscular training intervention on anterior cruciate ligament injury risk reduction in young females: the meta-analysis and subgroup analysis. Br J Sports Med, bjsports-2014.

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Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation

Table of Contents
1.1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………4
1.2. COMPANY AND INDUSTRY OVERVIEW………………………………………………………………………………….………6
2.CAPITAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………………………………………………..6
2.1.1. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6
2.1.2. RECENT TREND IN THE USE OF DEBT AND EQUITY…………………………………………………………………….7
2.1.3. DEBT/EQUITY RATIO………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7
2.1.4. SHARE BUYBACKS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7
2.1.5. WALMART FINANCIAL LEVERAGE ………………………………………………………………………………..……………8
2.1.6. PAST PATTERN OF WALMART……………………………………………………………………………………………………8
2.1.7. WALMART RECENT CAPITAL EXPENDITURE ……………………………………………………………………………….8
2.1.8. PECKING ORDER THEORY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….9
2.2 OPTIMAL LEVERAGE ANALYSIS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………10
2.2.1 TRADE-OFF THEORY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………10
2.2.3. AGENCY THEORY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….12
2.2.4. STAKEHOLDERS THEORY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………13
REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………14.

The report is a study of Walmart Stores, Inc. capital structure. The capital structure is an investigation of how a company can finance its expansion and general functions through the use of diverse sources of finances. The debts of the firm may be in the form of bonds or long-term notes payable. Equity is classified in the following three forms namely: preferred stock, retained earnings or common stock. The paper compares Walmart with Costco and Target Corp. Financial analysis shows positive ROE, ROA, and other profitability ratios and its revenue is increasing and the trend will persist for other five years. The financial leverage of the company is seen as improving and there is no risk of bankruptcy. The firm should utilize trade-off theory that suggests the use of debt so as to enjoy debt benefits. The company is also seen as following the pecking order theory as it seeks to reduce shareholders stake in the company. Stakeholders have no reason to worry as the company is not likely to be bankrupt. Walmart has been paying high dividends to their shareholders so as to reduce agency cost.

Walmart Stores, Inc. is a company that deals with wholesale and retail business. The firm was established on July 2, 1962 by Samuel Moore Walton and it is headquartered in Bentonville, AR. It was incorporated on October 31, 1969 and it was listed or publicly traded on the stock exchange in New York in 1972. The firm operates retail stores in different areas across the world. The company pride itself as the world’s largest firm by revenue as well as the company largest private employer with over 2.3 million staffs globally. The company has the following business segments: Walmart International, Walmart U.S, and Sam’s Club.
Walmart U.S segment entails a retail store and digital retail functions in the U.S. The business segment gives monetary services and associated products like bill payment, check cashing, wire transfers, prepaid cards, and money order (Elsas & Florysiak, 2015).
Walmart International segment classifies its operation into wholesale, retail, and other form of operations outside America. The segment include supermarkets, supercenters, warehouse clubs, hypermarkets, home improvements, apparel store, drug store, convenience stores, specialty electronics and digital retail.
Sam’s Club segment entails membership-only storehouse and samsclubs.com. According to Ma, Pace, & Stryker (2015), the segment gives specialty services, pharmacy, auto buying, optical, hearing aid centers, business operations support services, and tire and battery services.
The recent development for Walmart and the industry is the use of technology to effectively carry on business. Other industrial players have been using software that assists their operations such as Point-of-Sales terminals. Walmart has built a system that allows their interaction with the end user so as to get the feedback about their products. The company can be able to adapt quickly as they have up-to-date information that detect consumer behavior changes so that they can be able to produce goods that satisfies the needs of the consumers.
The two comparable firms in the industry include Costco and Target Corp. Costco Whole Sale Corporation is the biggest warehouse company based on its products. It is ranked second biggest retailer in the world after Walmart. The company has over 729 warehouses across the world. Its size, activity, and area of operations offer the best (Wahlen, Baginski, & Bradshaw, 2014).
Target Corp. is the second biggest discount vendor in the United States after Walmart. The firm was formed in 1902 by George Dayton. It was in the beginning named Good fellow Dry Goods – and afterward Dayton’s Dry Goods Company and the Dayton Firm. The primary Target store opened its doors in 1962. Target Corp. is at present headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota. It has 1,795 stores, 38 delivery centers, and 341,000 personnel globally (Shabbir, 2016). The nature and size of operation makes Target a better company for analysis.

2.1 Historical Company Leverage/ Financial Analysis and Peer/Industry Leverage Analysis
2.1.1 Financial Analysis
Walmart is extensively known due to its immense capability to generate profits by operational brilliance and leveraging range. According to the table below, it shows Walmart’s performance as average, in different key areas of measuring profitability. One meticulous test is the ROE (return on equity). The retailer functions with less leverage as contrasted to its opponents.
Profitability Measures Walmart Costco Target
ROA 6.85% 7.01% 7.22%
ROE 17.23% 20.34% 23.64%
Gross Profit Margin 25.65% 13.3% 29.57%
Operating Profit Margin 4.69% 3.1% 6.98%
Profitability Ratio
Walmart Revenue Growth from 2006 to 2015

According to the graph below, the growth trend of Walmart will continue its growth for the next five years.
2.1.2 Recent Trends in the Use of Debt and equity
As of January 2017, Walmart had a long term debt of $42.02 billion and a short-term debt consist of current maturities of long-term debts of 3.92. Thus, the total debt of Walmart is $45.94 billion. The company as of January 2016, Walmart had a total debt of 43.6 billion. This shows a slight increase in the use of debt by $2.34 billion (Kumar, Sunder, & Sharma, 2015).
Equity entails common stock, retained earnings, and treasury stock. As of January 2017, the shareholders equity in Walmart was $89.66 billion that included common stock worth $305 million and retained earnings of $89.35 billion. As of January 2016, the equity capital of the company was worth $83.66. This shows that there has been an increase in the equity capital by $5.69 billion.
2.1.3 Debt/Equity Ratio
The company should ensure that its debt is lower than the equity so as to provide a healthy level of debt. Walmart D/E ratio is 46.87% compared to that of Costco and Target that stands at 95.5% and 54.3% respectively. Costco shows that its debt is almost overtaking their equity.
2.1.4 Share Buybacks
In the third quarter of 2017, the company bought back 19.6 million stocks worth about $1.4 billion. This is a decline from the previous quarter where it had bought back stock worth 30.3 million worth about $2.1 billion (Wahlen, et al. 2014).
2.1.5 Walmart Financial Leverage
Walmart financial leverage for 2017 is 2.56 from 2.48 in 2016. The increase in leverage is due to the decrease of total debt while equity capital has not greatly changed. The value can be compared with Target which has a financial leverage of 0.5 in January 2016 and 0.65 in 2017. The values can show that Walmart is using less debt to finance its activities compared to target. The company has an established target financial leverage of 1.5 as it seeks to attract more investors through managing to control the bankruptcy risks.
2.1.6 Past Pattern of Walmart Stores, Inc. Leverage
The Managerial Inertia Theory
The company utilizes the managerial inertia theory. When the value of equity rises up, the company retires debt or issue debt so as to achieve their target. Walmart Stores, Inc. usually does this by retiring capital or share buybacks. The 3rd quarter of 2017 saw the firm retiring $1.4 billion worth of shares so as not to move the leverage ratio to 3.0 and above.
The Security Mispricing Theory
The main reason for share buybacks is that shares of the company is undervalued. This theory holds that companies are likely to issue stock when their market values are high, comparative to book and historic values, and to repurchase stock when the value of the market is low. Walmart Company has not issued shares in the recent times (Shabbir, 2016). It has always been in a mission to repurchase shares. The company has been paying high price for its stocks until 2006 when their shares have been slightly undervalued.
2.1.7 Walmart Recent Capital Expenditure
Walmart made a great acquisition of an e-commerce firm called Jet.com to a tune in a $3.3 billion contract. The acquisition will surge the trade prowess by deepening their talent and also getting the cheapest way to ship online orders. Walmart will purchase Jet.com at $3.3 billion that include $3 billion in cash and $300 million of Walmart shares. The $3 billion is from retained profit that the company has saved for expansion programs.
2.1.8 Pecking Order Theory
The peck order states that the company should start with utilizing its internal funds. If the company requires external funding, it should start with issuing debt and then convertibles. The firm should use equity as a last resort. However, in the acquisition of Jet.com, the firm did not utilize debt option first and instead issued shares. However, the practice of Walmart Company to repurchase or buyback shares is an indication that the firm want to lessen the stake of the shareholders in the company. This practice is in support of the pecking order theory.
2.1.9 Walmart, Target, and Costco Leverage Finance Policy
Costco leverage ratio for 2016 is 2.75. For Target Corp, the leverage ratio for 2016 is 3.11. Walmart leverage ratio for 2016 is 2.4. This shows that Target Corp. has a higher leverage ratio followed by Costco and lastly Walmart. This shows that the company Target Corp. uses more of debt than equity to finance their activities while Walmart uses more of equity than debt to finance their activities.

2.2 Optimal Leverage Analysis
2.2.1 Trade-off theory
The trade-off theory should be considered when determining the optimal capital structure of a firm. The trade-off theory offers a guideline on a company’s optimum capital levels that lessen the cost of capital. The cost of capital usually arises due to the supplementary expenses that are attached to the diverse sources of capital. The idea provides that, trade-off suggestion that debt financing has the lowest cost of resources as contrasted to other sources of capital. This is due to its tax-deductibility feature from the interest disbursements.
The tax deductibility property of liability financing lessens a company’s tax responsibility. Nevertheless, it is vital to note that debt financing has its complementary expenses such as monetary distress costs. Thus, it becomes essential for firms to trade-off the tax remunerations of debt financing and the relevant liquidation and financial distress expenses. The financial distress expenses include suppliers demand for disadvantageous terms of payment, staff leaving, and stockholder wrangling.
2.2.2 Trade-off Theory Determinant of Optimal Leverage
Asset Structure (Tangibility)
The theory presumes that fixed assets serve as security or collateral. Thus, the agency cost theories states that the higher the tangibility, the lower the peril of a creditor anguishing from debt trade-off theory or agency costs. Nevertheless, pecking order theory presumes the opposite as companies with more fixed assets incline less towards asymmetric data. Consequently, they offer less debt.
Growth Opportunities
The debt ratio brings a negative relationship with the debt ratio and it is anticipated in terms of the trade-off hypothesis as lofty leverage can be a threat to future chances for growth. The pecking order hypothesis, higher enlargement causes the need for more finances and the firm is anticipated to borrow more.
It states that rich companies such as Walmart should issue more debt so that the managers can be prevented from wasting free cash flow (Axelson, Jenkinson, Strömberg, & Weisbach, 2013). This results to a positive association between liquidity and debt in terms of trade-theory. The pecking order means that a negative association between liquidity and leverage.
Size of the Firm
Big companies have a lesser risk of bankruptcy and they have diversified their operation like Walmart that has three segment of business operation. Thus, according to trade-off philosophy, they can issue more debt and this shows the association between firm size and leverage. Thus, according to pecking order philosophy, the connection should be opposite.
Earning Volatility
This determinant holds that the volatility of profitability is associated with business risk. The earnings volatility is viewed as inversely related to leverage without any diversity for trade-off theory or pecking order.
Trade-off theory advices firms such as Walmart to select higher debt ratio in order to enjoy probable tax shield. The pecking order theory states that there is a negative association between profitability and debt ratio as there is fondness for internal finance over external funding.
2.2.3 Agency Theory
The agency relation is belief that explains the association between agents and principals in a trade. The problem occurs when the agent interest are not allied with the interest of the principal making the agent to pursue their own interest. Walmart is owned by small shareholders who are dispersed and they are effectively controlled by administrators who own small quantity of their company’s shares.
Optimal leverage in trade-off theory entails a given debt-to-equity ratio that lessens distress costs and other agency costs whilst facilitating the firm in benefiting from the utmost possible benefits of taxation. The agency costs are explicated further by the prominent agency cost. The theory states that each firm has data asymmetry between shareholders of the firm and management. The administration has vital knowledge concerning to the functions of the company together with its operations. Despite the shareholders being the owners of the company, they are not privy to this information. The dynamics results to the agency costs disseminated among the principals of the company.
Walmart Stores, Inc., agency costs are negligible due to the fact that the firm relies typically on equity financing. Thus, it does not result on extra debt. Additionally, the shareholder has been pocketing increased EPS each year. The EPS have moved from 3.13 in 2008 to 4.57 in 2016. Another vital indication of the firm’s condensed agency cost is the surge in profitability in the last 10 years. The surge in each shareholders EPS further shows the firm being adherent to the shareholder’s theory. This means that the administration at Walmart is constantly creating worth for all their stakeholders.
2.2.4 Stakeholders Theory
This refers to the interconnected associations between the business, employees, suppliers, investors, society and others who may have a stake in the business. This theory stresses that the stakeholders can be hurt by the company monetary difficulties. According to Cookson (2017), this may lead to the firm having less interest in doing business with a company that is experiencing financial distress. In Walmart, the customers purchase item at low cost compared to other retail shops and they do not need any other motivation to shop in the company. Walmart has low leverage and therefore their stakeholders are likely to be financially distressed.
In conclusion, the report establishes that the trade-off model is a realistic theory that can be useful in exploring the capital structure of the firms. The firm analyzed by the report is Walmart Stores, Inc. and it has been compared by two other firms namely Target Corp. and Costco. Walmart capital structure is predominantly comprised of debt and equity financing that symbolizes a portion of financing. It translates to the firm having surge in monetary strength and that is why they have increased their debt financing. Nevertheless, the retail industry is described by lessened leverage financing and Walmart should not surge its debt financing due to the nature of this industry. The firm should decrease their optimal leverage range by repurchasing more of its shares.

Axelson, U., Jenkinson, T., Strömberg, P., & Weisbach, M. S. (2013). Borrow cheap, buy high? The determinants of leverage and pricing in buyouts. The Journal of Finance, 68(6), 2223-2267.
Cookson, J. A. (2017). Leverage and strategic preemption: Lessons from entry plans and incumbent investments. Journal of Financial Economics, 123(2), 292-312.
Elsas, R., & Florysiak, D. (2015). Dynamic capital structure adjustment and the impact of fractional dependent variables. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 50(05), 1105-1133.
Kumar, V., Sunder, S., & Sharma, A. (2015). Leveraging distribution to maximize firm performance in emerging markets. Journal of Retailing, 91(4), 627-643.
Ma, K. C., Pace, R. D., & Stryker, J. (2015). Stock Valuations on Earnings versus Cash Flow. International Journal of Business, 20(4), 357.
Shabbir, M. S. (2016). Why Manufacturers are Less Powerful than Retailers in Trade Circles? A Case Study of Wal-Mart Retailing Business. Journal of Global Economics.
Wahlen, J., Baginski, S., & Bradshaw, M. (2014). Financial reporting, financial statement analysis and valuation. Nelson Education.

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Lean Manufacturing

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You know from your prior experience that moving to lean manufacturing (or demand-based manufacturing) can generate not only profitability improvements but also improvements in asset requirements (inventory reduction). Based on this, you wanted to let the Global Supply Chain Manager and her purchasing department know about the kind of inventory savings that might be achievable.

She is already familiar with the classic EOQ formula, of

Q= v2CD / H
C = cost of issuing a new purchase order or cost of a changeover in the manufacturing plant;
D = demand per period; and
H = carrying cost of inventory

To assess the expected level of average inventory, the formula is

Average inventory = Q / 2
where Q = EOQ from the EOQ formula.

In a traditional forecast-driven manufacturing operation, assume the following:

Monthly sales or demand = 1,000 units
Changeover cost = $500
Inventory carrying cost = 30% of inventory cost
Average cost per unit of inventory = $10
Let the Global Supply Chain Manager and her purchasing department know the following:

In a traditional forecast driven manufacturing operation,
What would be the EOQ?
What would be the average inventory level in units, and in dollars?
In a demand-based, synchronous manufacturing operation, assume C = $10, with the changeover time reductions seen in synchronous manufacturing.
What would be the new EOQ?
What would be the new average inventory level in units, and in dollars?
Assuming the carrying cost of inventory is 30%, what is the dollar savings in inventory needed?
What conclusions can you reach about the impact on the company’s overall ROI when switching to demand-based, synchronous manufacturing?


Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation

Lean Manufacturing
The process of lean manufacturing employs lean thinking that entails never ending endeavor to lessen or eliminate waste or any doings that consumes properties of the firm without adding value in manufacturing, customer service processes, distribution, and other processes. The method was formed by Toyota management during post-second war re-enactment in Japan. The paper explores the conclusion of effect of the firm’s general ROI when switching from traditional forecast-driven industrialized functions to demand-based, synchronous industrialization.
In the Traditional Forecast Driven Manufacturing Process:
The EOQ is calculated as:
EOQ = √2CD/H
C = Cost of Charge Over
D = Demand per Period
H = Carrying Cost of Inventory
EOQ = √2x$500×1, 000/ (0.3×10)
= √1,000,000/3
What would be the average inventory level in units, and in dollars?
Average Inventory = Beginning Inventory + Balance Inventory / 2
1,000 units / 2
Average Dollar = P x (Q/2)
$10 x 500 = $5,000
in a demand-based, synchronous manufacturing operation, assuming C = $10, with the switch time decrease experienced in synchronous manufacturing.
What would be the new EOQ?
√2x$10×1, 000/ 30%x10
= √2,000/3
= 81.6
new average inventory level in units, and in dollars?
Average Inventory = Beginning Inventory + Balance Inventory / 2
500 units / 2
Average Dollar = P x (Q/2)
$10 x 81.6/2 = $408
Assuming the carrying cost of inventory is 30%, what is the dollar savings in inventory needed?
577.4 x 3 = $1732.2
81.6 x 3 = $244.8
Return on Investment can be described as the gain to an investor that results from investing in particular business. Return on Investment is calculated as gain from investment less cost of investment divided by the cost of investment (Fullerton, Kennedy, & Widener, 2014). The higher the value, the more enhanced is the ROI. The change of the operation of the business from traditional way of forecasting to demand-based and synchronization will result to higher ROI. The factors that assist in improving ROI include improved quality, improved visual management, reduction of manpower, increased efficiency, easy to management, total firm involvement, elimination of problems, reduction in space, improved workers morale, and work environment that is safe.
Factors that will lead to improvement in ROI
Improved Quality – there are numerous activities in the lean environment that helps to improve the quality of manufacturing processes. The new methods will ensure that problems are discovered early and a technique to solve the hurdle is implemented. This ensures quality improves attracting more returns and revenue that increases the firm’s ROI.
Enhanced visual management – there is another gain of adapting to lean management. It helps to easily identify an abnormality in manufacturing and be able to solve it faster. The improved management ensures there is success in production resulting to high ROI.
Improved Efficiency – The process ensures that each person in the process performs his task in the most efficient way. If there is standardized way of working, then items will have same quality of work. If it is done repeatedly it surges efficiency and this helps to improve efficiency.
Reduction in Manpower – this is a key benefit of lean management. It assists a firm to have a lot done with less human resource. With standardized job and surge in efficiencies, it assists people to do a task with less people.
Easy to manage – it is easy to supervise few people and ensure that they perform their task according to the firm’s expectation. This ensures that problems are solved faster and the workforce can be able to maximize their production.
Total Firm Involvement – the process is supposed to involve the whole firm. It is not intended to benefit only one single area of the company (Snyder, 2014). The process of efficient team management result to improved ROI.
Elimination of problems – lean manufacturing process helps to ensure that the root course of a problem. It ensures that the hurdles gets the correct level of attention and ensures necessary corrections are done.
Space reduction – the process of waste reduction helps to create space. Lessening of finished and raw stock will save space perpendicularly in your racking as well as straight across the ground floor of the company. It also reduces costs of hiring leading to improved ROI.
Safety working environment – lean manufacturing ensures that there is safe working environment. If there is reduction in activities and there is improved organization of the firm, there will be an organized work environment that ensures more work is done. This is another method that improves ROI of a firm.
Enhances the morale of the employees – enhanced morale of the staffs may not be actualized during the initial phases of implementation but once the method start getting appreciated, it leads to improved results. Enhanced performance increases ROI of the firm.

Fullerton, R. R., Kennedy, F. A., & Widener, S. K. (2014). Lean manufacturing and firm performance: The incremental contribution of lean management accounting practices. Journal of Operations Management, 32(7), 414-428.
Snyder, L. V. (2014). A tight approximation for an EOQ model with supply disruptions. International Journal of Production Economics, 155, 91-108.

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Pipe and Filter Commands

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Research the history of the pipe and filter style of commands. In a 2- to 3-page report, explain the strengths and limitations of the approach. Compare it with earlier command styles.

assignment two
Auditing and Logs
Most operating systems include a logging and auditing facility. To set the security auditing policies in Windows, navigate to Windows: Administrative Tools> Local Security Policy> Local Policies> Audit Policy. You will see that Windows can record successful and failed attempts to log on, access resources, and other potentially sensitive operations. You can enable auditing for a specific resource by opening its properties sheet to the Security tab, selecting Advanced, and then the Auditing tab. To review the security log, navigate to Windows: Administrative Tools> Event Viewer. You will see the security log, as well as logs that contain application error and system error reports. Review the settings and logs on your computer. In a 2- to 3-page report, address the following:

Your main findings, especially situations you want to investigate
Auditing settings you would like to modify
Additional information you find helpful in the logs
Suggestions to improve the audit and logging user interface
Research the Windows Management Interface (WMI). How could WMI help you with some of the changes you have proposed?


Pipe and Filter Commands

The UNIX pipes and filters are commands that were introduced in the Unix Operating systems as a manner in which two commands could be connected. The two commands were connected in a way such that the output of the prior command became the input of the command that followed. As opposed to prior commands, this command system introduced a new system of operation in UNIX which came with its own limitations as well as advantages. By definition, the pipe and filter method is an architecture-oriented approach that seeks to ensure a stream of processing. The components of this command system are basically filters and pipes (Ballani & Francis, 2007). Filters are for filtering the data and only sending the data which is required while pipes are the connectors that trickle down to the other components.
The pipe and filter command system brought a couple of advantages over the earlier used commands. Firstly, the command system is simple since it has only two components. To the contrary the earlier command systems were enormous and somehow hard to execute (Ciancarini n.d.). The earlier command-line interfaces used a series of requests for keying in input and also for output. An example if the old system is the batch system whose latency of output would stay for hours or even days. The pipe and filter style is therefore better since it has a simple command line of flow where input is easily processed.
In addition, the pipe and filter style utilizes commands that can be used and reused over and over again. This is because it is able to locate similar input between the latter and the earlier commands thereby relaying the same output that it had offered before. To the contrary, the earlier commands were odd and lacked the functionality of re-using. As such one had to repeat the same commands over and over even when the input was similar. As such, a waste of time was felt which has now been cleared by the pipe and filter command style.
The pipe and filter style is a revolutionary style in the world of computing. It has the characteristic of growth and a capability to evolve. This means that the command style can be customized to suit the needs of a certain programming environment. As opposed to this ability the earliest teletype command systems were discrete and would not be changed. As such the output expected was never relayed (Tibermacine, 2014). To the contrary, the programmers had to fit and adjust their input such that it suited that command system. The pipe and filter system therefore proves efficient by observation of this capability.
The style of command however came along with a few disadvantages. One is that despite the fact that it was a new discovery after the teletype and batch command systems, it offered very little for the purpose of human-machine interaction. It evolved very little and the earlier systems seemed more efficient in human interactions which make it disadvantageous.
Many programmers expect that a command system indicates some tolerance to faults. That is, the output can be expected to be correct irrespective of some error within the process of programming. The pipe and filter system however dissipated low tolerance to faults and some error in the input indicated a completely new output. The batch system for instance was more tolerant to fault as observing through, a programmer could note an error and adjust accordingly. This element of the pipe and filter system therefore made it disadvantageous since it was relatively poor in performance.

Ballani, H., & Francis, P. (2007, August). CONMan: a step towards network manageability. In ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review (Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 205-216). ACM.
Ciancarini, P. Architectural styles for software systems.
Tibermacine, C. (2014). Software Architecture: Architecture Constraints.

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Sharing and Security

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Sharing and Security

Operating systems have to balance the conflicting goals of convenient resource sharing and protection against unauthorized resource access. Windows offers a variety of mechanisms such as user and group permissions, shares, and access control lists with inheritance. Linux has a much simpler implementation of users and groups. What do you see as the ideal balance between sharing, protection, and complexity? Can you provide an instance that comes close to your ideal? Explain.

assignment 4

Auditing and Logs

Most operating systems include a logging and auditing facility. To set the security auditing policies in Windows, navigate to Windows: Administrative Tools> Local Security Policy> Local Policies> Audit Policy. You will see that Windows can record successful and failed attempts to log on, access resources, and other potentially sensitive operations. You can enable auditing for a specific resource by opening its properties sheet to the Security tab, selecting Advanced, and then the Auditing tab. To review the security log, navigate to Windows: Administrative Tools> Event Viewer. You will see the security log, as well as logs that contain application error and system error reports. Review the settings and logs on your computer. In a 2- to 3-page report, address the following:

Your main findings, especially situations you want to investigate
Auditing settings you would like to modify
Additional information you find helpful in the logs
Suggestions to improve the audit and logging user interface
Research the Windows Management Interface (WMI). How could WMI help you with some of the changes you have proposed?


Auditing and logging facility

The logging and auditing facility of windows operating system is a highly interactive facility that gives the user a manner to review the system and decide on the allocation of resources. My observations surrounded the immense administrative tools. The system is a robust in operation as it involves component matters, management of the PC, optimization of drives among many others. My main interest however falls in the functioning of the local security settings of the administrative tool. The local security policy settings allow the user to interact with the account policies, public key policies, advanced audit policy configuration, applications controls among others. My findings therefore gave me the chance to investigate the ability of the local settings policy to manage auditing capacity of the machine. Two areas of investigate in this case are the advanced auditing, the application control policies and the local auditing policies (Chen, Lu & Jan, 2012). By this, I will have the chance to investigate the correlation between the advanced audit policy configuration and that of the local policies.
The main audit settings of the local policy are the audit account for log on events, audit account management, auditory directory service access, audit logon events, audit object access, audit policy use, audit process tracking and audit system events. While all these settings are sufficient for operations of the machine where the machine accommodates each event and audits event. The audit process tracking is one of the auditing settings to modify. It is very shallow in accommodation since it only indicates the tracking of processes that took place recently. It therefore fails to indicate the auditing of events that took place a long time ago and which the user may wish to revisit. The audit privilege settings also need to be modified so that they accommodate more strict regulations concerning privileges.
The logons are the heart of the administrative mechanism of the computer. They are the main regulators that indicate the auditing information for different activities that are undertaken by the machine. Through the local policy and the logon events, the user can be able to control and edit the audit policy, user rights assignment and also security options. The user rights Assignment for instance only gives credentials to trusted callers, is also part of the operating system (Cichonski et al., 2012). System events are also efficient since they record failure, success or even where there are no auditing details. The user, through access controls can be able to alter these settings and customize the settings such that he or she is able to only control and access auditing information concerning events undertaken using the computer.
Despite the fact that the audit and user interface is of great importance to the system, the interface is less interactive from my viewpoint. The user interface appears like a file system which is somehow improperly. To the contrary, an administrative tools interface for auditing ought to be more interactive and friendly to the user. For instance when a user misses to click on the correct file, they will be required to restart the process again. The interface however lacks to reflect the face of a correct computing interface. The interface therefore needs to be restructured such that the user can be able to go backwards whenever they click on an incorrect option. The Windows Management Interface (WMI) (Chen, Lu & Jan, 2012). Is a highly interactive system and hence by use of its characteristics, then changes to the audit and logging user interface may be evolved to such.

Chen, Y. Y., Lu, J. C., & Jan, J. K. (2012). A secure EHR system based on hybrid clouds. Journal of medical systems, 36(5), 3375-3384.
Cichonski, P., Millar, T., Grance, T., &Scarfone, K. (2012).Computer security incident handling guide.NIST Special Publication, 800, 61.

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List and describe at least 5 different considerations that must be taken into account by the VP of Global Supply Chain as she makes her recommendation for the country of assembly

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Library Research Project

Acting on your recommendation that the retiring purchasing manager be replaced with a more up-to-date Vice President of Global Supply Chain, the CEO hired a new one. The new VP immediately found herself facing an important decision of where to source some components that have traditionally been very high cost, when the factory makes them in-house. Here is the data she is presented with:

The currency of Country A is called Reds; of Country B is called Greens.
The currency and forecasted exchange rates are as follows:
$1 = 2 Reds
$1 = 2.2 Greens
The product costs for each of the 5 products from each of the 2 countries are as follows:

Country A

Country B

Product 1

10 Reds

9 Greens

Product 2

2 Reds

2.2 Greens

Product 3

7 Reds

4 Greens

Product 4

5 Reds

5 Greens

Product 5

4 Reds

4.5 Greens

Because of the different packaging available in the two countries, and the different skill levels in packaging, the parts per container are different between the two countries.
From Country A, any of the 5 parts will fit 1,000 per container
from Country B, any of the 5 parts will fit 800 per container
The ocean freight costs for a 40′ container of any of these products are as follows:
For Country A, costs are similar to the ocean freight from Brisbane, Australia to the port of New York City.
for Country B, costs are similar to the ocean freight for a 40′ container from Tokyo, Japan to the port of New York City.
Estimated 40′ container ocean freight costs can be found by accessing this Web site (www.freight-calculator.com).
It will take about 10 minutes to fill out an RFQ form.
If you are unable to get quotes, use these figures: $5,000 for Brisbane; $4,400 for Tokyo.
Make up a company name.
Assume you are shipping a 40′ container of nonhazardous household goods.
Insure the goods for $100,000.
Use the upper left side of the Web page (1. Ocean Cargo) and the section for 20-/40-foot containers.
Individual Portion: 750–1,000 words

Each team member must take 1 of the Products 1-5, and do the following:

Perform the necessary research and calculations regarding the best source of that product based only on total delivered (landed) cost, which includes the following:
Product cost from each country, taking the exchange rate into account
Ocean freight costs per piece, showing the quotes received from the Web site, and taking the differing number of pieces per container into account
Make a recommendation on which country from which to source that product, and explain your reasoning why.
Please add your file.

Group Portion: 1,200 to 1,500 words

The next decision that has to be made is where to assemble Products 1-5. The choices for assembly location are Mexico, Canada, and the factory itself (in the United States). In all 3 cases, assume that the parts arrive from Country A or B, go to the main factory, and then go to Mexico or Canada or stay in-house for assembly.

List and describe at least 5 different considerations that must be taken into account by the VP of Global Supply Chain as she makes her recommendation for the country of assembly, and explain why each consideration is important.
Explain what her recommendation should probably be and why.


Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation

Group Portion
The paper analyzes the choice that has to be made on where to assemble products 1 to 5. The decision to choice to assemble the product includes United States of America, Canada, and Mexico. The study assumes that the parts to be assembled arrive from Country A and B and move to the main factory and then it is taken to Canada or Mexico for assembly. The parts can also be assembled in-house. The paper explore considerations that should be taken into account by the VP of Global Supply Chain and make recommendation for the nation of assembly and explore why the consideration are necessary. Further, it will examine on the recommendation and why she will offer such a recommendation.
Political conditions – the political stability of a nation is vital for the functioning of the business. Political upheaval disrupts industrial growth while political stability advances industrial activity. The political stability creates confidence and this motivates investors to venture in a particular industry. Also, law and order in a particular country or municipal county. Few persons will be interested to set their businesses in areas with no law and order as they fear losing their investment.
The importance of considering the political stability is to ensure that the choice affect the economic environment. It also influences the nation’s socio-cultural environment that can affect the operation of the business. The political environment can persuade the rate of emergence and acceptance of novel technologies.
Incentives – the business should be set in areas where there are incentives, subsidies, and land costs for areas that are backward in terms of development. The business should be established in areas where government provides tax holidays, cheaper lands, price concession, and several incentives. The business should ensure that incentives and indulgence cannot suitably reimburse for lack of infrastructural facilities like transport and communication amenities. The company should seek to establish the business in backward areas that have a connected infrastructure system.
The importance of considering incentives is that it can lower the cost of production and make the item to be sold at a lower price. This can assist the firm to have a competitive advantage over other firms in the industry. Through low prices of their products, the company can be able to have a large market share in the industry (Oshri, Kotlarsky, & Willcocks, 2015).
Availability of labor or manpower – the business should seek to establish the availability of required labor in detailed merchants may be yet another deciding aspect for the location of the assembling company. The company should check on the availability of labor that is skilled and existence of training institution in the area that demonstrate usefulness. The firm should study the labor relations through absenteeism, turnover rates, and vivacity of trade unionism in that given area. The company can also consider cost of educating the labor force to compile with the industrials status.
It is significant to check on the labor or manpower capacity of the region before setting the business in a particular region. If there is no enough or experienced labor, the company will be forced to educate or import workforce people and this may be expensive for the company.

Oshri, I., Kotlarsky, J., & Willcocks, L. P. (2015). The Handbook of Global Outsourcing and Offshoring 3rd edition. Springer.

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Select a hospitality company in your community and evaluate their presence on e-commerce channels

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Select a hospitality company in your community and evaluate their presence on e-commerce channels in 700- to 1,050-word paper.
Contact the general manager to help gather information and use outside resources to assess the following:

How well has the company utilized the three types of e-commerce? Is the company distributing information across all business functions?
Identify any channels they are not currently taking advantage of that they should be.
Determine the strength of their overall e-commerce presence


Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation

E-commerce can be referred to as a business model that enables a company or a person to transact business on the internet. The paper analyzes China Eastern Airline and examines their presence on e-commerce channels. There are three types of commerce that include C2C (Consumer to Consumer), B2B (Business to Business) and B2C (Business to Consumer). The firm will explore if the company has utilized the three types of e-commerce and if China Eastern Airline distributing data across all the business data. Also, the study will identify the channels that businesses are not currently taking advantage of as they are supposed and establish the strength of their general e-commerce presence.
How China Eastern Airline has utilized the Three Type of E-commerce and how the Company is distributing Data across the Business Functions
B2B – entails transactions between two firms to provide services to the clients. China Eastern Airline website provides a link to another business called booking, a place where different hotels provide services to clients accessing the services of the airline.
B2C – it entails purchasing a service or product from an online commerce website. The China Eastern Airline provides online booking of flights where they can purchase tickets and other travel allied products online (Abdullah & Kadhim, 2016).
C2C– involves a person-to-person transaction over an electronic platform. The airline has not explored this type of commerce where their clients can auction their product online for other clients to purchase.
The firm is distributing data across all the functions of business. For instance, it is using social media sponsored ads to market and sell their services. China Eastern Airline is using its website to provide information on career opportunities in the firm. Externally, it uses a responsive platform in the website to identify and answer client concerns.
Channels the Firm is not currently utilizing as they should to gain a Competitive Advantage
Marketplaces – this are cites that permit a person to offer your items for sale online. The clients can purchase the services from a marketplace and not in the website of the company. For instance, eBay and Amazon are the largest marketplaces where the businesses can sell their products and market their places and acquire new clientele.
Comparison Shopping Engines – this entails a comparison of over 100 search engines that offers a variety of diverse business models at pay-per-click or at no cost. The free shopping engines include Google Product Search. The pay-per-click is those services that can be used to drive traffic and ultimately conversion such as Nextag. China Eastern Airline should adapt a comparison shopping engines to surge sales and revenue.
Direct traffic – China Eastern Airline should also ensure that it adapts direct traffic channels. The channels include affiliate marketing, email marketing, and bookmarking or direct URL navigation to increase its online presence and client accessing their services.
Mobile technology – this involves the use of smart phones with barcode-scanning apps and refined web browsers that has surged their practice in online shopping. Though it’s an area that is slowly growing, the firm should strongly build their capacity in the areas.
Strength of overall E-commerce Presence
China Eastern Airlines used to sell air tickets through travelling tickets but with the increase in online shopping and mobile banking, the firm has now adopted e-commerce practices. The firm has deployed various channels including app store optimization, search engine marketing, mobile app, and mobile website to create its e-commerce capacities. A range of online payment techniques like UnionPay or Alipay are accessible for clients. The company has also provided discounted airfare or other promotional offers provided the clients purchase tickets through online platforms (Escobar-Rodríguez & Carvajal-Trujillo, 2013). The online platform provides client information that is assembled from direct selling and online platform. From this analysis, the strength of the firm is above average. However, there are numerous areas that it needs to improve to ensure that it performs better in the coming days.
The paper has explored on e-commerce and has defined this as a business model that enables a company or a person to transact business on the internet. The choice of the firm that has been studied in this analysis is China Eastern Airline. There three types of commerce that include C2C (Consumer to Consumer), B2B (Business to Business) and B2C (Business to Consumer) has been explored. Also, the study has identified the channels that businesses are not currently taking advantage of as they are supposed. From the analysis, the strength of the firm is considered as above average.

Abdullah, M. N., & Kadhim, E. H. (2016). Airline Mobile Reservation Development. development, 3(10)
Escobar-Rodríguez, T., & Carvajal-Trujillo, E. (2013). Online drivers of consumer purchase of website airline tickets. Journal of Air Transport Management, 32, 58-64

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